Everything You Need to Know About VAT in Nigeria

Everything You Need to Know About VAT in Nigeria

Value Added Tax (VAT) in Nigeria

Value Added Tax (VAT) is an important tax that has a direct impact on the prices of goods and services in Nigeria. It plays a crucial role in generating revenue for the government, which is then used to fund various public services such as healthcare, education, infrastructure development, and more. This article aims to provide a clear and simplified explanation of VAT in Nigeria, including its definition, functioning, and the effects it has on businesses and consumers.

What is VAT in Nigeria

Value Added Tax is an indirect tax imposed on the value added at each stage of the production and distribution process of goods and services. It is a tax that is ultimately borne by the end consumer, but businesses collect it on behalf of the government. This means that when you purchase a product or service, a certain percentage of the price you pay includes VAT, which is then remitted to the government by the business.

How Does VAT Work?

VAT is calculated as a percentage of the selling price of a product or service. The VAT rate in Nigeria is currently set at 7.5%, although it is important to stay updated with any changes made by the tax authorities. When a business sells a product or service, it adds the applicable VAT rate to the selling price. For example, if you purchase an item worth 10,000 Naira, the VAT component would be 750 Naira (10,000 x 0.075). The business then collects this VAT amount from you and later remits it to the government. 

Impact on Businesses

For businesses, VAT has both financial and administrative implications. Firstly, businesses are responsible for collecting VAT from their customers and keeping accurate records of these transactions. They must then remit the collected VAT to the tax authorities within the specified timeframes. Failure to comply with VAT regulations can result in penalties and legal consequences. 

Secondly, businesses also incur VAT expenses on their purchases, commonly known as input VAT. They can offset the input VAT against the output VAT collected from their customers. If the input VAT exceeds the output VAT, the excess amount can be reclaimed as a refund from the tax authorities. However, if the output VAT exceeds the input VAT, the business is required to remit the difference to the government. 

Impact on Consumers

VAT directly affects consumers through the prices they pay for goods and services. Since businesses include VAT in the selling prices of their products or services, consumers end up paying more than the base price. For instance, if the base price of an item is 1,000 Naira and the VAT rate is 7.5%, the consumer would pay a total of 1,075 Naira (1,000 + 75 VAT). 

Consumers should be aware that certain goods and services may be exempted from VAT or subject to a zero-rate. These exemptions and zero-rated supplies are typically for essential items like basic food items, medical supplies, educational materials, and exports. Understanding these exemptions can help consumers make informed purchasing decisions and be aware of the impact VAT has on the prices they pay. 

VAT Registration

VAT registration is a crucial step for businesses operating in Nigeria, and it is mandatory for those whose annual turnover exceeds a certain threshold as determined by the tax authorities. Registering for VAT allows businesses to legally collect VAT from their customers and ensures compliance with tax regulations. Here is an in-depth look at the VAT registration process and its significance for businesses: 

Threshold for VAT Registration

The specific threshold for VAT registration is determined by the tax authorities and may vary over time. As a business owner, it is important to stay informed about the current threshold to determine whether your business needs to register for VAT. If your annual turnover exceeds this threshold, you are required to register for VAT. 

Registration Process

To register for VAT, businesses need to complete the necessary forms and provide relevant information to the tax authorities. This includes providing details about the business, such as its name, address, nature of business activities, and contact information. Additionally, you will be required to provide your tax identification number (TIN), which is obtained from the Federal Inland Revenue Service (FIRS). 

Importance of VAT Registration

VAT registration is essential for businesses for several reasons: 

a. Compliance with the Law: Registering for VAT ensures that your business operates within the legal framework set by the tax authorities. Failure to register when required can result in penalties, fines, and even legal consequences. 

b. Ability to Collect VAT: Once registered, your business is authorized to collect VAT from your customers. VAT is typically added to the selling price of goods and services, and businesses must clearly indicate the VAT component on their invoices or receipts. 

c. Input VAT Recovery: VAT registration allows businesses to claim input VAT recovery. This means that businesses can offset the VAT they paid on their purchases (input VAT) against the VAT they collect from their customers (output VAT). Proper record-keeping of VAT invoices and supporting documentation is crucial to accurately claim input VAT recovery. 

d. Enhancing Business Reputation: VAT registration demonstrates that your business is operating in compliance with tax regulations. It can enhance your reputation and build trust with customers, suppliers, and other stakeholders. 

VAT Registration Timeline

After submitting the required documents and information, the tax authorities will review your application for VAT registration. The timeline for registration can vary, but it is important to allow sufficient time for processing. Once approved, you will receive a VAT registration certificate, which serves as proof that your business is registered for VAT. 

Ongoing VAT Obligations

VAT registration is not a one-time process; it comes with ongoing obligations for businesses. These include: 

a. Collecting VAT: As a registered business, you are responsible for collecting VAT from your customers at the applicable rate. This involves clearly indicating the VAT amount on invoices or receipts issued to customers. 

b. VAT Returns and Filing: Registered businesses must file periodic VAT returns with the tax authorities. These returns provide information on the VAT collected from customers and the VAT paid on purchases. It is essential to accurately report these figures and file the returns within the specified deadlines to avoid penalties. 

VAT Exemptions and Zero-Rated Supplies

Some goods and services are exempted from VAT or are charged at a 0% rate. This means that no VAT is added to their price.

Exempt Goods include:
  1. All medical and pharmaceutical products
  2. Basic food items
  3. Educational Books and materials
  4. Baby products
  5. Fertilizers, locally produced agricultural chemicals and veterinary medicines
  6. All exports
  7. Plant and Machinery
  8. Locally produced sanitary towels, pads or tampons
  9. Commercial aircrafts, aircraft engines and aircraft spare parts
  10. Petroleum products – (aviation turbine kerosene, premium motor spirit, household kerosene, locally produced Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG), and crude petroleum oils.
  11. Renewable energy equipment.
  12. Raw materials for the production of baby diapers and sanitary towels.
  13. Raw materials for production of pharmaceutical products
  14. Locally produced animal feeds.
  15. Military hardware, arms, ammunition and locally manufactured uniforms used by the armed forces, paramilitary and other security agencies of governments in Nigeria.
  16. Gas supplied by gas producing companies to Generating companies (GENCOs), Electricity generated by GENCOs and supplied to National Grid or Nigeria Bulk Electricity Trading Company (NBET) and Electricity transmitted by Transmission Company of Nigeria (TCN) to Electricity Distribution Companies (DISCOs).
  17. Agricultural seeds and seedlings.
Exempt Services include
  1. Medical Services
  2. Services rendered by unit micro finance banks and mortgage institutions
  3. Plays and performances conducted by educational institutions as part of learning
  4. All exported services
  5. Tuition relating to nursery, primary, secondary and tertiary education
  6. Airline transportation tickets issued and sold by commercial airlines registered in Nigeria
  7. Hire rental or lease of tractors, ploughs and other agricultural equipment for agricultural Purposes
  8. Shared passengers road transport service
Zero Rated Good and Services

i. Goods and services purchased by diplomats
ii. Goods purchased for use in humanitarian donor funded projects.

VAT Refunds and Savings

As a business, you can recover some of the VAT you paid on your expenses. This helps reduce the overall VAT burden on your business. It’s important to keep proper records of your VAT invoices and expenses to claim these refunds accurately. Specifically, businesses can incur VAT savings through a process known as VAT offset or input tax credit. Here’s how you can achieve VAT savings: 

Register for VAT: Ensure that your business is registered for Value Added Tax (VAT) with the Federal Inland Revenue Service (FIRS). VAT registration is mandatory for businesses that meet the annual turnover threshold set by the FIRS. 

Understand input tax: Familiarize yourself with the concept of input tax. Input tax refers to the VAT paid on purchases of goods and services that your business uses in its operations. These purchases can include raw materials, equipment, office supplies, and services. 

Keep accurate records: Maintain detailed records of all your business expenses and the VAT paid on those expenses. This documentation is crucial to substantiate your input tax claims and calculate your VAT savings accurately. 

Separate VAT on inputs: Ensure that you clearly identify the VAT paid on your purchases as input tax. This can be done by requesting VAT invoices or receipts from your suppliers, clearly indicating the VAT amount paid. 

Calculate input tax credit: Calculate the total VAT paid on your purchases during a specific tax period. This amount represents your input tax credit or the potential VAT savings you can claim. 

Offset input tax against output tax: Offset your input tax credit against the output tax collected from your customers. Output tax refers to the VAT you charge on the goods or services you sell. If your input tax credit exceeds your output tax liability, you can claim the difference as VAT savings. 

Prepare VAT returns: File your VAT returns with the FIRS, reporting your input tax credit and output tax collected. The FIRS provides specific forms for VAT returns, which you need to complete accurately. 

Maintain compliance: Ensure that you comply with all VAT regulations, including timely filing of VAT returns and payment of any VAT liabilities. Non-compliance can result in penalties or loss of VAT savings. 

Seek professional advice: Consider consulting a tax professional or an accountant specializing in VAT to ensure that you are maximizing your VAT savings and complying with all regulations. 

VAT Audits and Compliance

The tax authorities may conduct audits to ensure businesses are complying with VAT regulations. It’s important to keep detailed records of your transactions, such as invoices and receipts, to demonstrate your compliance. Non-compliance can lead to penalties and other consequences. 

VAT and E-commerce

VAT also applies to online purchases. Online marketplaces and e-commerce operators may collect VAT on behalf of their sellers. As an online shopper, it’s good to be aware that VAT may be included in the prices you see when making purchases. 


Value Added Tax (VAT) is an important tax in Nigeria that affects the prices we pay for goods and services. Understanding how VAT works can help businesses comply with the regulations and consumers make informed purchasing decisions. 

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